1860, the role of the popularizers in the vulcan affair

1860, the role of the popularizers in the vulcan affair

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1860, the role of the popularizers in the vulcan affair

In addition to being known as the Roman god of fire and a member council of gods, Vulcan had the distinction of being the only ugly god. His father, Jupiter, had numerous children, but none with his wife, Juno, who wanted her own child. Juno decided to have a baby on her own, which led to the birth of Vulcan. He was a red-faced and crying baby, so unattractive that the shocked Juno tossed him off Mount Olympus.

After a full day and night of falling from the heavens, he landed in the sea. The fallen child broke both of his legs, which left him with a permanent limp. The sea nymphs collected the child and raised him. He spent his young years happily wandering the beach, where he found coal which he collected in shells and stored in an underwater grotto.

Eventually, he made a fire from the coal and learned to craft beautiful objects. Vulcan became so skillful he became known as the blacksmith of the gods. He created their objects of beauty and magical weapons. The talented craftsmen had a special love and appreciation for one of the nymphs who saved him, and crafted a stunning pearl necklace as a gift. She was most proud of her necklace and wore it to a god party on Mount Olympus. Juno was amazed by its beauty and insisted on knowing how to acquire one for herself.

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Upon learning that it was her abandoned child who crafted the beautiful object, she insisted he return to her. Instead, he send a gift to Juno. It was a magical chair made of gold and adorned with jewels. Delighted with her gift, Juno promptly sat down on it, but the chair entrapped her with unbreakable chains. There she sat for three days, unable to leave her seat. Finally, Jupiter made a deal with Vulcan to save his wife.

Vulcan returned to Mount Olympus and had his stunning bride. Venus was the goddess of beauty, and was considered the fairest of all the goddesses. Ironically, she ended up married to the ugliest god. Perhaps this is what led her astray, as she was quite unfaithful to Vulcan with various lovers. At one point, Venus took up an affair with Mars, the god of war, and the brother of her husband. When he learned of the relationship, Vulcan was outraged and he crafted an unbreakable golden net to trap the adulterers.

He had them caught in the net and called the other gods to ridicule and embarrass them. Jupiter was irritated with him for making such a spectacle of the affair, and the other gods made fun of Vulcan instead.It was edited from the pilot, " Solo ", which was shot in colour, but was broadcast in black-and-white, to conform with the rest of the first season.

The episode was subsequently expanded with additional footage and released in colour as the feature-length movie, To Trap a Spy.

They are at first successful, until Napoleon Solo defeats them.

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A sequence in Solo shows the death of the captured agents due to THRUSH having them take a slow acting poison killing them regardless of the success or failure of their mission. By investigating Vulcan's past he locates a housewife who was a former university girlfriend of the reclusive Vulcan to aid him. They board an airplane and head to Washington D. Once there, they go to a party hosted by Vulcan for the African leader and his two fellow diplomats.

There, the housewife flirts with Vulcan to acquire information, and he invites her for a tour of his chemical plant. He plans to give the African leader and his friends a tour the following day. Seeing a good espionage chance, she agrees. She distracts Vulcan while Solo sneaks in the plant.

1860, the role of the popularizers in the vulcan affair

Vulcan and his men find them out and pursue them through the plant. They get in a car, and find the African leader inside. In reality, he is complicit in the plan and working with Vulcan; he plans to kill his two friends with an explosion at the plant during their tour.

They are captured, and almost killed, but Solo manages to free them and they rescue the two men. The leader and Vulcan are killed in the explosion. The episode was mostly shot in six days in late November but some additional footage was shot in three days in the following spring. The producer was Norman Felton who had conceived the original idea for the show and then developed it in consultation with the creator of James Bond — Ian Fleming.

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Sam Rolfe was given the job of writing the detailed background for the series and wrote the script for this episode. The score was composed by Jerry Goldsmith including the catchy theme tune which was performed by The Gallants.

This first episode featured Napoleon Solo as the eponymous Man from U. Robert Vaughn was cast in this role to give the character an urbane, sophisticated style similar to Cary Grant 's role in Notorious. The Russian agent, Illya Kuryakinonly had four lines in this episode as the role had yet to attract the attention which it subsequently achieved due to the casting of blond actor David McCallumwho was a great favourite of female fans.

The other main regular character appearing was the leader of U.

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He was played by Leo G. Carroll who was cast because he had played a similar avuncular role in North by Northwest. This was however a late change as, in the pilot, the leadership role was Mr Allison, played by Will Kuluva. He was removed from the show after an NBC executive ordered that the character whose name started with "K" should go. He had meant Kuryakin but it was Kuluva that went and the role was reshot with Carroll in the part.

The standard front for U. In this first episode, the part of the tailor, Del Floria, was played by Mario Siletti. Each episode was expected to include an innocent character caught up in the action, as Cary Grant was in North by Northwest.

The Vulcan Affair

Janice Rule was originally considered but rejected due to both Vaughn and Rule preferring to be photographed from the left side. The other major guest star was Fritz Weaver who played the villain Andrew Vulcan. The episode featured William MarshallIvan Dixon and Rupert Crosse as three diplomats from a newly independent African nation seeking industrial assistance from the West. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bookpp. The Man from U. The Girl from U. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Television episode articles with short description for single episodes Use mdy dates from November In particular, its perihelion—the point where it passed closest to the sun—seemed to shift slightly with each orbit.

The planet simply never ended up where it was supposed to be. Still, he argued that it should be easily spotted under the proper conditions. Thirteen years earlier, the Frenchman had made a similar prediction while trying to account for a gravitational waver in the orbit of the planet Uranus. When astronomers scanned the heavens using his figures, they had found the previously unknown planet of Neptune. The discovery had vaulted Le Verrier to international scientific stardom, winning him admittance to the French Legion of Honor and a post as the head of the Paris Observatory.

As it turned out, however, the breakthrough had already come several months earlier courtesy of an amateur named Edmond Modeste Lescarbault. While staring through his telescope on March 26,he had watched a small black dot—possibly a planet—drift across the face of the sun. He left the meeting more convinced than ever—there was indeed a new ninth planet located even closer to the sun than Mercury.

Le Verrier announced the discovery in early The discovery of Vulcan was hailed as a great leap forward for science. Lescarbault was admitted to the Legion of Honor, and Le Verrier was once again lauded for his mathematical genius.

There was just one problem: the new world was frustratingly difficult to spot. Scattered Vulcan sightings poured in from around the globe, but most were from amateur astronomers.

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Le Verrier still needed an independent confirmation from a respected professional. In the hope of putting the matter to rest, supporters calculated that the planet would be visible in late March and early April Astronomers readied their telescopes, yet when the appointed time came, Vulcan failed to show itself. Many soon began to wonder if it existed at all.

Over the next several years, Vulcan became the subject of an international planet-hunt. There were sightings throughout the s, yet for every sky watcher who claimed to have seen it, there were just as many who tried and found nothing.

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The ranks of the skeptics only grew inwhen a team of English astronomers failed to locate Vulcan for the third year running. A professional astronomer reported that he watched the planet transit the sun from an outpost in China, and newspapers received a new flurry of amateur sightings. Enthusiasm was so high that the New York Times felt comfortable weighing in. Just a year later on July 29,a total solar eclipse took place over parts of Russia and North America.

The event presented prime viewing conditions for Vulcan, and legions of astronomers set up their telescopes and cameras in the hope of capturing it. Most came up short, but two respected astronomers, James Craig Watson and Lewis Swift, both claimed to have spotted it.Workers struck from Baltimore to St.

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Panicked business leaders and friendly political officials reacted quickly. When local police forces would not or could not suppress the strikes, governors called out state militias to break them and restore rail service. Many strikers destroyed rail property rather than allow militias to reopen the rails.

The protests approached a class war. In Baltimore, the militia fired into a crowd of striking workers, killing eleven and wounding many more. Strikes convulsed towns and cities across Pennsylvania.

A month of chaos erupted. Strikers set fire to the city, destroying dozens of buildings, over a hundred engines, and over a thousand cars. In Reading, strikers destroyed rail property and an angry crowd bombarded militiamen with rocks and bottles.


The militia fired into the crowd, killing ten. A general strike erupted in St. Louis, and strikers seized rail depots and declared for the eight-hour day and the abolition of child labor. Federal troops and vigilantes fought their way into the depot, killing eighteen and breaking the strike.

Courts, police, and state militias suppressed the strikes, but it was federal troops that finally defeated them. When Pennsylvania militiamen were unable to contain the strikes, federal troops stepped in. When militia in West Virginia refused to break the strike, federal troops broke it instead. On the orders of the president, American soldiers were deployed all across northern rail lines. Soldiers moved from town to town, suppressing protests and reopening rail lines.

Six weeks after it had begun, the strike had been crushed.

The Vulcan Affair

The strike galvanized the country. It convinced laborers of the need for institutionalized unions, persuaded businesses of the need for even greater political influence and government aid, and foretold a half century of labor conflict in the United States. John Pierpont Morgan with two friends, ca. Growing labor unrest accompanied industrialization. The greatest strikes first hit the railroads only because no other industry had so effectively marshaled together capital, government support, and bureaucratic management.

Many workers perceived their new powerlessness in the coming industrial order.The Vulcansalso known as Vulcaniansare a humanoid species native to the planet Vulcan.

They are one of the founding species of the United Federation of Planetswidely known for their distinctive pointed ears and eyebrows, and their merciless logic.

There may have been numerous transitions within the Vulcan government which has shifted between the Vulcan High Command to the Confederacy of Vulcan. Part of their territory is known as the Vulcan Colonial Protectorate. TOS novel : Spectre. Originating from a desert world, Vulcans have a number of features evolved for better survival in warm and dry environments. These include inner eyelids to protect their eyes from sand and the ability to go for some time without water.

Last Unicorn RPG module : The Way of Kolinahr: The Vulcans This was a genetic trait that was traced to the early Vulcan ancestors following the scorching of their world and was spread through the use of primitive eugenics allowing the entire species to retain the use of this inner eyelid. TOS novel : Spock's World The inner eyelid is useful as it allows a Vulcan to withstand blinding flashes of light without any damage to the eye itself.

Although this can be further mutated, under the proper conditions, to closely resemble that of a fish. Vulcans tend to be tall with dark hair and all have elongated upper ears that are pointed at the top and slanted eyebrows. Some specimens have pronounced brows. Similar to HumansVulcans tend to have a wide range of skin tones, an example being Xialitesand other tropically descended Vulcans, possessing a darker skin complexion.

The Vulcan epidermis is unlike any in the known galaxy as it formed a two-way moisture proof shield which protects the body from external liquids and pressure, as well as maintaining the inner temperature and the liquid environment of the organs. A notable difference between Humans and Vulcans is that Vulcans do not possess sweat glands.

Instead, they evolved an ability that allows their bloodskinand body structure to cool itself rather than perspire, which would be inefficient on the race's desert homeworld. The larger blood vessels are the reason Vulcan blood pressure is lower.

The dilated blood vessels and fast heart rate also play a key role in regulating Vulcan body temperature. Vulcan blood is copper based, giving Vulcan blood a green color. This makes it extremely effective in separating, as well as utilizing, smaller amounts of oxygen available in the Vulcan homeworld's low pressure and mildly irradiated environment.See the entire gallery. Title: The Vulcan Affair 22 Sep The criminal organization's target is a delegation from the newly independent African nation, Western Natumba.

The plot is under the supervision of Andrew Vulcan, a U. Solo recruits an old flame of Vulcan's as part of his plan. Written by Bill Koenig. I just saw this episode on cable, it was the pilot for the show. Interestingly the show was called "Solo" at the beginning of this episode. They must have subsequently renamed it "The Man from U.

Carroll did not appear in this episode. The head of U. Allison in this episode and was played by Will Kuluva. I notice that it notes "scenes deleted" next to his name on the "Vulcan Affair" page, but the version I saw did have Mr. Kuluva's scenes in it. David McCallum's Ilya character had a very small role in this episode. I also noticed that this episode included the scene with Solo getting shot at while behind a piece of bulletproof glass. They used this in the intro to the show in later episodes.

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Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions.November 22, By Hsiang-Fu Huang Astronomers and historians often refer to the discovery of Neptune in as a triumph of Newtonian celestial mechanics. By discovering a planet at the tip of a pen, scientists showed feats of intelligence and caught the imagination of the public. Spock in Star Trek! Like Uranus, the anomalous orbit of Mercury, which was inconsistent with theory, had long troubled astronomers.

To solve the mystery, Le Verrier claimed that an undiscovered planet — or at least a mass of asteroids — stood between Mercury and the Sun.

1860, the role of the popularizers in the vulcan affair

A poster advertizing a Lenten astronomical lecture in April in London, three months after the discovery of Vulcan made for sensational news in France, shows how the discovery was adopted for a public lecture in a theatre in Britain.

The poster encapsulates transits of knowledge across different boundaries: between countries, contexts, and media. The lecturer, Charles Henry Adams, was a schoolmaster and regularly delivered astronomical lectures with the transparent orrery in West End theatres during Lent. This kind of astronomical show was a phenomenon in nineteenth-century Britain.

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As a seasoned showman, Adams could not miss the Vulcan story and made the intramercurial planet a main feature in his lecture. In hindsight, Vulcan is an error or an obsolete folly, like aether and epicycles. The planet does not exist. The initial sensation and eventual failure of Vulcan reveals a complex network of knowledge production and circulation behind the historical scenes.

Involved in the wider construction of the discovery were not only elite and amateur astronomers, but also journalists, writers and lecturers, such as C. They were crucial to construct the image of science in public, yet most of the time they are ignored in accounts of this episode. The phrase refers not only the circulation or transmission of knowledge, but also to the dynamics shaping knowledge — changes, compromises, or even mutations — as it is circulates.

To adopt such a perspective helps historians to see that, as sociologists of science explain, truth is not the cause but a consequence of claims to knowledge being accepted. Social factors, such as effective networks of popularizers, often play a significant role in the process.

Read the full paper : Historical moments in public understanding of science. Transferring scientific discovery to the public: the intramercurial planet Vulcan in Email: hsiang-fu.

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